This peruvian root, long used by spanish royalty, helps improve memory recall ability and overall learning ability. This super root is also known for its ability to protect against depression and age-related cognitive decline.
Rubio, J., Caldas, M., Dávila, S., Gasco, M., & Gonzales, G. F. (2006). Effect of three different cultivars of Lepidium meyenii (Maca) on learning and depression in ovariectomized mice. BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine,6(1). doi:10.1186/1472-6882-6-23
Conclusion: “Black Maca appeared to have more beneficial effects on latent learning in OVX mice; meanwhile, all varieties of Maca showed antidepressant activity.”
Rubio, J., Dang, H., Gong, M., Liu, X., Chen, S., & Gonzales, G. F. (2007). Aqueous and hydroalcoholic extracts of Black Maca (Lepidium meyenii) improve scopolamine-induced memory impairment in mice. Food and Chemical Toxicology,45(10), 1882-1890. doi:10.1016/j.fct.2007.04.002
Conclusion: “Both extracts of Black Maca significantly ameliorated the scopolamine-induced memory impairment as measured in both the water Morris maze and the step-down avoidance tests. Black Maca extracts inhibited AChE activity, whereas MAO activity was not affected. These results indicate that Black Maca improves scopolamine-induced memory deficits.”
Pino-Figueroa, A., Nguyen, D., & Maher, T. J. (2010). Neuroprotective effects of Lepidium meyenii (Maca). Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences,1199(1), 77-85. doi:10.1111/j.1749-6632.2009.05174.x
Guo, S., Gao, X., Gu, Y., Wan, Z., Lu, A., Qin, Z., & Luo, L. (2016). Preservation of Cognitive Function by Lepidium meyenii(Maca) Is Associated with Improvement of Mitochondrial Activity and Upregulation of Autophagy-Related Proteins in Middle-Aged Mouse Cortex. Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine,2016, 1-9. doi:10.1155/2016/4394261
Conclusion: “ Our findings suggest that maca is a newly defined nutritional plant which can improve mitochondrial function and upregulate autophagy-related proteins and may be an effective functional food for slowing down age-related cognitive decline.”